T.V. Antonenko, O.M. Ulitina
Correlation between the Type of Higher Nervous Activity and Social Rank in the Groups of Domestic Horses (Equus caballus) and Cats (Felis catus)
The type of higher nervous activity (HNA) is one of the most important factors determining individual variation and adaptation of the organism to the environment. The article shows the interaction analysis between HNA typological features and the species hierarchical rank in the herds of domestic horses (trotters and saddle horses) and cats (indoor and outdoor groups). Differences between selected groups were marked not only by species compositions, but also by the stage of stability level of animals’ society and the environment. Cats and horses have a different taxonomic position and various features of group formation. However, we identified common patterns of HNA influence on species rank. In all groups on the top of the hierarchy were only animals with the strong types of HNA. Presence and the ratio between the strong unbalanced type of HNA (choleric) and strong balanced inert type (phlegmatic) in highly ranked group of cats and horses is determined by the level of environmental stability. In rapidly changing environment and unstable societies’ composition species with the unbalanced type of HNA have advantages than species of the inert type due to the greater mobility of nervous processes. Therefore, choleric species were on the top of hierarchy in herd of saddle horses (with not stable society) and in group of outdoor cats. Stability of environmental factors (in the herd of trotters and indoor cats) was optimal for the display of the typical properties of phlegmatic nervous system. Representatives of a strong balanced mobile type of HNA (sanguine) have drawn up approximately half of all highly ranked animals that indicate their successful adaptation in all examined groups.
Key words: hierarchical rank, type of higher nervous activity, domestic cat (Felis catus), domestic hors (Equus caballus), behavior, factors of dominance
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