Analysis of the Socio-Political Structure of Early Medieval Kyrgyz of Sayan-Altai in the Context of the Development of the Domestic Nomadology in Late 1960’s — Early 1990’s
The period of late 1960s - early 1990s is one of the most important stages in the study of social and political systems of medieval nomads of southern Siberia and Central Asia. At this time, a historical materialism was still the main methodological basis for the study of historical processes, including nomadic societies. According to the Marxist tradition the communities of nomads of early Middle Ages were primarily considered as a “transitional” to feudalism, early feudal or formed feudal. At the same time other opinions on this subject began to express. In particular, S.G. Klyashtorniy explained that free men warriors played the main role in the nomads’ community, and slave-holding exploitation was related only to housekeeping of captive women. It should be noted that in the case of the institutions of power most of scientists considered the large political formation of nomads of VI-XIth centuries including Kyrgyz Khaganate as a state. In this period researchers achieved much success in study of archaeological monuments of Kyrgyz culture, which gave the basis for a detailed study of the funeral rites and paleo-social reconstructions made by G.V. Dluzhnevskaya, D.G. Savinov, Y.S. Khudyakov, P.P. Azbelev. However, the social line of investigation in medieval nomadology was less presented in compare with the research of Scythians people. This may be explained by the fact that the number of Kyrgyz monuments was less than the objects of the Late Antiquity. In addition, a specific of burial rite of Kyrgyz made it impossible to identify a wide range of social signs of burial as it could be done on the materials of Pazyryk and Xiongnu culture. In general, only in mentioned period there were possible to give a complete estimation of socio-political organization of the Kyrgyz on the basis of variety of sources and with minimal ideological influence on the concept of scientists.
Key words: historiography, Yenisei Kyrgyz, socio-political organization, southern Siberia, Central Asia, the Middle Ages
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