K.A. Pozharskaya, T.N. Soboleva
Physical and Geographical Conditions of the Altai Region in the Scientists’ Assessment of the Late 19th — Early 20th Centuries
The article reveals the specifics of physical and geographical realities of the Altai region in the scientists’ coverage of the late 19th — early 20th centuries. Based on the vast range of published works, the authors state that in the period under review there is a final shift from the defining the Siberian climate as homogeneous and unsuitable for effective human activities. It resulted in closer attention of specialists to some areas of the Urals and to Altai which at the turn of the century were experiencing an active peasants’ colonization. The publication argues that the scientific study of the natural conditions of the district carried out by experts in the late 19th — early 20th century determined the conclusion about the heterogeneity of the region on a number of basic geographical parameters (relief, climate, soil, hydrography and vegetation). At the same time, a number of environmental parameters such as temperature, surface irrigation, precipitation, etc. caused, according to the scientists, significant difficulties for the development of grain farming in selected areas of the region. Noting the presence of the fundamental conditions for agricultural production in Altai, the researchers stated low predictability of farm labor productivity arising due to the challenging climatic conditions of the district.
Key words: the Altai district, colonization, physiographic image, scientific expertise, climate, soil regimes
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