Socio-Legal Status of the Military in Russia in the Second Half of the XIX — the Early XX Century
The military or soldiers were a special group of the population of the Russian. It consisted of the lower ranks of the army, soldiers with indefinite vacations, retired soldiers with their families, and cantonists. In view of the current legislation in the pre-revolutionary statistics there were the population categories belonging to the military: lower military ranks of regular troops, their families, the soldiers with indefinite vacations with their family members, retired soldiers with their family members, soldiers’ children and cantonists enrolled in special educational establishments. With the introduction in 1874 of conscription, persons recruited for a few years, at the time of service and after it remained in their previous class. Under the new law each year the army recruited 20- year-old people of all classes. They were assigned to serve no more than 6 years, after which they were enlisted for 9 years in the reserve, and then, having reached 40 years of age, were enrolled in the militia. The service life was reduced depending on the education, or they soldiers could get deferment their by marital status. The history of the military in the second half of the XIX — early of the XX century, which in the 1860– 1870s was one of the most populous categories of citizens and after a short period of time after the introduction of universal conscription practically ceased to exist, clearly shows how the effects of the great reforms destroyed the class system of the Russian Empire.
Key words: soldiers, war, class, socio-legal status, XIX century